Eusideroxylon zwageri

Although other common names such as Tambulian, Billian and Boelian are used in

the areas of occurrence these names are not known in Australia.


Belian is a medium sized hardwood native to South-East Asia from the island areas

of Malaysia throughout Indonesia and the Philippines, growing predominately in

low-lying alluvial flats and occasionally in adjoining low mountainous areas, growing to an average height about 35 metres.


Although not previously common in Australia it has in recent years become readily available, particularly as decking, because of its high durability rating and its low or almost nonexistent level of leaching.


Timber Properties

Density (average)

1300 kg m3 green

1040 kg m3 dry

Durability: Class 1

Strength Group

S1 green

SD1 dry

Hardness Rating (average)

13.0 kN green

13.0 kN dry


The timber is very dense but easy to work, however even though there is little silica present some build up may occur on saws and machining knives.


The heartwood is yellowish brown to reddish brown when freshly sawn but darkens on exposure to a dark or chocolate brown with time and the sapwood is easily defined being a pale to light yellowy brown. The grain is usually straight and the texture moderately fine and even.


By comparison to most Australian Eucalypt hardwoods it has a very low shrinkage rate and is not susceptible to lyctid borer attack.


In Asia and Europe it is commonly used for heavy engineering purposes such as wharf and bridge building, marine piles and boat building as well as flooring and outdoor furniture.


In Australia it is only regularly available as domestic decking although it is likely to emerge as flooring because of its technical suitability.